In Hana Financial, Inc. v. Hana Bank et al., 574 U.S. ___ (2015), the U.S. Supreme Court addressed a split between circuits on determination of whether the “tacking” doctrine is available in a given case. Plaintiff Hana Financial, Inc. sued defendant Hana Bank for trademark infringement. Hana Bank is a Korean entity that was founded in 1971 as the Korea Investment Financial Corporation. In 2002, they began operating in the United States as “Hana Bank.” Hana Financial incorporated in California in 1994 and obtained federal trademark registration of their name two years later. At trial, Hana Bank raised the tacking doctrine in defense and the jury returned a verdict in their favor that was subsequently affirmed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.
“Tacking” is a lower court doctrine holding that two marks may be tacked when they are considered to be “legal equivalents” that “create the same, continuing commercial impression” such that consumers “consider both as the same mark.” Writing for a unanimous court, Justice Sotomayer observed that when the relevant question is how an ordinary person or community would make an assessment, the jury is generally the decision maker that ought to provide the fact-intensive answer. Since “commercial impression” “must be viewed through the eyes of a consumer,” application of the “tacking” doctrine is a test that “falls comfortably within the ken of a jury.” Thus, when a jury trial has been requested (and the facts neither warrant a JMOL nor summary judgment), whether two trademarks may be tacked for purposes of determining priority will be a question for the jury.